Contact Us
Site Map
E-mail Notification
Site Search
Members Area
Maps Forum
User Name : 
Password : 
About Us
»  Enzymes
  - Textile
  - Leather
  - Baking
  - Alcohol
  - Brewing
  - Detergent
  - Starch
  - Animal feed
»  Know Enzymes
  What are Enzymes?
  History of Enzymes
  Making of Enzymes
»  Microorganisms
Bio Happenings
Bio Forum
 Home Products KnowEnzymes

Know Enzymes

Enzymes are miracles of nature

Enzymes are large protein molecules, and like other proteins, they are made up of long chains of amino acids. Enzymes are present in all living things, where they perform the essential functions of converting food to energy and new cell material.

Enzymes are bio-catalyst and can be used to speed up chemical processes or to make reactions take place that otherwise would not. Enzymes do this by binding to the starting material (substrate), catalysing the reactions, and then releasing themselves from the products so that they can react again. Although the enzyme is not consumed in the reaction, it does lose its activity over time and so eventually needs to be replenished.

Compared with other ways of controlling chemical reactions enzymes are more specific, more efficient and work under milder conditions. When enzymes are used in an industrial process, these characteristics can often be used to achieve higher purity and better yields while saving on energy.

Enzymes can be classified by the types of substrates they work on. Proteases works on proteins, carbohydrases (amylases) work on carbohydrates, cellulases work on cellulose and lipases work on lipids. They can also be classified by the types of reactions they catalyse. Hydrolases split molecules, synthetases join them and tranferases move groups of atoms from one molecule to another.

Over two thousand different enzymes have been identified, and several hundreds are available commercially, but so far only 25 are produced on an industrial scale. Some enzymes are still derived from plants and animals, including papain from papayas and rennet from calf stomachs. But the last 100 years, and especially since mid 1960s, microorganisms have become the most important source of enzymes. Microorganisms can be selected to produce almost any kind of enzyme in almost any quantity.

What are Enzymes?
History of Enzymes
How are Enzymes made?



 Site Search

 © Copyright Maps Enzymes Ltd. (Formerly Maps (India) Ltd.). 2010
Privacy  |   Legal
Web Designing and Development by STWI