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 Home Products Enzymes Baking

Enzymes for Baking

As a result of our R&D over the past few years, today Maps has a versatile product range of enzymes for the baking industry. Apart from individual enzymes like amylase, xylanase, protease, cellulase, we also have a range of tailored enzyme cocktails (mixtures of different enzymes) to solve problems in certain baking applications. Our customers for our baking enzymes are the baking improver industry or the milling industry, the Wafer, Biscuit and Cracker industry, etc.

Like all other living material, the cells in cereal grains used for flour contain enzymes. The most important enzymes in flour are the amylases and proteases. However, the quantities of these enzymes are not always ideal for baking purposes and supplementary enzymes often need to be added.


Bread is the most common and traditional foods around the world. But bread actually has close links with enzymes. For years, enzymes such as malt and fungal alpha-amylase have been used in bread making. Due to the changes in the baking industry and the ever-increasing demand for more natural products, enzymes have gained real importance in bread-making.

The dough for bread, rolls, buns, etc. consists of flour, water, yeast, salt and other ingredients such as sugar and fat. Flour consists of gluten, starch, non-starch polysaccharides, lipids, etc. When the dough is made, the yeast starts to work on the fermentable sugars, transforming them into alcohol and carbon dioxide, thus rising the dough.

In the beginning, the fermentation goes smoothly whether sugar has been added or not, because flour always contains a certain amount of fermentable sugar. But when this has been used up, the fermentation process will cease unless new supplies of sugar are made available to the yeast.

Amylases degrade starch and produce small dextrins for the yeast to act. Gluten is a combination of proteins, which form a large network during dough formation. This network holds the gas in dough proofing and baking. The strength of this network is very important for the quality of all bread raised by yeast. Enzymes such as proteases, xylanases and lipases directly or indirectly improve the strength of the gluten network and so improve the quality the bread.

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Dough Improvement

A small percentage of pentosans (non-starch polysaccharides) are present in flour. Pentosans have an important role in bread quality due to their water absorption capability and interaction with gluten, which is vital for the formation of the loaf structure. By hydrolysing the pentosans using some enzymes like hemicellulase, pentosanase or xylanase, the dough becomes easier to handle and the resulting bread has a bigger loaf volume and an improved crumb structure

Maps offers a range of amylases, proteases and xylanases for bread-making and dough improvement

Palkoamylo Fungal alpha amylase
Palkobake X Fungal xylanase
Palkotase ACP Fungal protease

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Flour Supplementation

Alpha amylases have significant effects on baked goods. If the content is low, this leads to low dextrin production and poor gas production. This in turn results in inferior quality bread with reduced size and poor crust colour.

To compensate for the deficiencies of the grain, it is necessary to add either sugar or alpha amylase.

The addition of enzymes offers certain advantages over sugar. At a flour mill, it is possible to standardize the enzyme content of the flour so that a uniform commodity can be supplied. Furthermore, enzymes bring about a gradual formation of sugar, which matches the needs of the yeast. When the dough is placed in the oven, the steadily increasing temperature leads to an increase in the enzymes' rate of reaction and more sugar is produced.

Malt flour and malt extract can be used as enzyme supplements as malt is rich in alpha amylases. However, it is better to use a fungal alpha amylase.

The alpha-amylases degrade the damaged starch in wheat flour into small dextrins, thus allowing yeast to work continuously during dough fermentation, proofing and the early stage of baking. This result in improved bread volume and crumb texture. In addition, the small oligosaccharides and sugars such as glucose and maltose produced by these enzymes enhance the reactions for the browning of the crust and baked flavour.

Maps offers a range of amylases and xylanases for flour supplementation, each with its own special properties which work to obtain specific needs of wheat flour.

Palkoflour Fungal alpha amylase
Palkoamylo Fungal alpha amylase
Palkoflour AX A mixture of fungal alpha amylase and xylanase

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Production of Biscuit and crackers

Another application of enzymes in baking is in the production of biscuits and crackers. The requirements of the flour are altogether different from those in bread-making; a 'soft flour' which produces a dough with pronounced plastic properties is preferred. For this purpose, flour with relatively low protein content is desirable. The gluten protein structure should not be too strong, otherwise the dough will be too difficult to handle.

Unless flour with these properties is available, it is necessary to add an agent to weaken the gluten. Reducing agents (substances which have the opposite effect to oxidizing agents) have been used for this purpose, in particular sodium bisulphite. The bisulphite has the desired effect on the gluten, but unfortunately it affects other substances in the flour, including the content of vitamin B1 (thiamine). This vitamin is completely or partially destroyed. Sodium bisulphite has been banned in certain countries and is becoming less popular due to health risks.

An alternative is the application of a protein-degrading enzyme. This softens the gluten without affecting the other constituents of the dough. Several fungal and bacterial proteases can be used for this purpose. Proteases can also be used when making bread with 'hard flour' i.e. flour high in gluten protein.

Maps offers a range of proteases for production of biscuit and crackers

Palkotase NUP Neutral bacterial protease
Palkotase ACP Fungal protease

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 Site Search

Our Baking Enzymes
Dough Improvement
Palkobake X
Palkotase ACP
Flour Supplementation
Palkoflour AX
Production of Biscuit and crackers
Palkotase NUP
Palkotase ACP
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